It is now increasingly recognized that landscape stewardship practices are core to social-ecological systems. To consider the implications of this, this paper focuses on one of the key characteristics of complex social-ecological systems: they are relationally constituted, meaning that both the elements of the system and the relations between them are important parts of the system.

The study investigates multi-actor collaboration as a key form of this ‘relationality’ in landscapes. A set of ‘gardening tools’ was used to analyse the boundary-crossing work of multi-actor collaboration in two cases of landscape stewardship in South Africa: the Langkloof Region and the Tsitsa River catchment.

This visual summary explains the main methods and findings of the study: